What is true about eating slower to promote weight loss?

What is true about eating slower to promote weight loss?

Can eating slower decrease your calorie intake at meals?

Written by, Emily Creasy, MS, RD, LD (Nutrition Remarks writer), Reviewed by Nalin Siriwardhana, Ph.D. Health News Highlights (February 14, 2012)

Research has shown that by learning to eat slowly, you can reduce the calorie intake up to 164 calories per meal. Theoretically, this small decrease in calorie intake can add up to a weight loss of nearly one pound a week. In a year’s time, this equates to a fifty pound weight loss simply by eating slower. Eating slower can also increase your enjoyment of meals by enhancing your sense of taste, sight, touch, and smell. These will help your body to better recognize feelings of satiety, or fullness, causing you to stop eating sooner and consume fewer calories at meals. In addition, drinking water before your meal may also help to lower the calorie intake. Research shows that drinking two 8-ounce glasses of water, prior to eating, can help to decrease your calorie intake.

Researchers at the Department of Psychology, Clemson University, monitored both the bite rate and amount of calories consumed by study participants. At meals, participants wore a watch-like wrist band, which was used to monitor their bite rate. The bite rate was defined as the number of bites taken per minute. For the first meal, participants bite rate and intake were monitored, but participants were not informed of their activity. For the second meal, participants watched a computer program providing them with data regarding their eating speed. At the third meal, participants were asked to consume their meal fifty percent slower than the previous two meals. All the participants were instructed to eat until satisfied at all meals and no restrictions were placed on intake amounts. It was found that the slowed bite rate could reduce the calorie intake by an average of 164 calories. Interestingly, this was observed only in those who ate larger meals greater than 400 calories on average. The calorie intake was not decreased as significantly in those who normally consumed smaller meals less than 400 calories. This suggests that learning to eat slowly will have promising benefits to those who typically eat large meals.

It has been found that those who are overweight or obese generally have a higher bite rate, or eat food more quickly, than those who are able to maintain a healthy body weight. Research indicates that a higher bite rate can often lead to increased calorie intake at meals, decreased meal satisfaction, and increased risk for being overweight or obese. Eating too fast can also interfere with the body’s cues for satiety, or fullness. By eating slower, feelings of fullness can be more easily recognized and overeating can be avoided at meals. Further it will help to decrease your calorie intake at meals and can also help you to enjoy food more through increased sensory awareness. Over time, these small changes in your calorie intake can add up to weight loss and improve overall health. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a weight loss of just 5 to 10 percent of your total body weight can help to produce benefits including improved blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar levels.

Apart from the above benefits, eating slower can offer additional benefits for the body including improved digestion and absorption of nutrients from foods. Therefore, take your time to enjoy meals and thoroughly chew and swallow each bite. Avoid swallowing foods whole when possible to ease the work on your digestive system and also avoid unwanted feelings of heartburn or acid reflux. By eating slower, you allow your body time to efficiently send chemical and hormonal signals to the brain to help you more easily recognize feelings of fullness.

This information is primarily based on the following article published in Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Some general background information was acquired from PubMed and NIH sources.

Scisco et al., Slowing Bite-Rate Reduces Energy Intake: An Application of the Bite Counter Device. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2011; 111(8), 1231-1235.

References

Scisco JL, Muth ER, Dong Y, Hoover AW. Slowing bite-rate reduces energy intake: an application of the bite counter device. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. August 2011.

McGee TL, Grima MT, Hewson ID, Jones KM, Duke EB, Dixon JB. First Australian experiences with an oral volume restriction device to change eating behaviors and assist with weight loss. Obesity. January 2012.

Otsuka R, Tamakoshi K, Yatsuya H, Murata C, Sekiya A, Wada K, Zhang HM, Matsushita K, Sugiura K, Takefuji S, OuYang P, Nagasawa N, Kondo T, Sasaki S, Toyoshima H. Eating fast leads to obesity: findings based on self-administered questionnaires among middle-aged Japanese men and women. Journal of Epidemiology/Japan Epidemiological Association. May 2006.

Andrade AM, Greene GW, Melanson KJ. Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. July 2008.

Maruyama K, Sato S, Ohira T, Maeda K, Noda H, Kubota Y, Nishimura S, Kitamura A, Kiyama M, Okada T, Imano H, Nakamura M, Ishikawa Y, Kurokawa M, Sasaki S, Iso H. The joint impact on being overweight of self reported behaviours of eating quickly and eating until full: cross sectional survey. BMJ. October 2008.

Woods SC. Gastrointestinal satiety signals I. An overview of gastrointestinal signals that influence food intake. American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. January 2004.

Takayama S, Akamine Y, Okabe T, Koya Y, Haraguchi M, Miyata Y, Sakai T, Sakura H, Sasaki T. Rate of eating and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes or hyperlipidaemia. Journal of International Medical Research. July 2002.

Losing Weight. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/losing_weight/index.html. August 2011.

Dennis EA, Dengo AL, Comber DL, Flack KD, Savla J, Davy KP, Davy BM. Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults. Obesity. February 2011.

Copyright © 2012 Nutrition Remarks. All rights reserved

Is it true that eating slowly will help you lose weight?

Is it true that eating slowly will help you lose weight?

Are you overweight and eating fast? Learn to eat slowly, You may avoid weight gain.

Frontier Voice of Nutrition Remarks (February 13, 2012) <<<Print PDF>>>

Nalin Siriwardhana, Ph.D., interviewed Dr. Eric R Muth, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology and
Director of the Human Factors Institute Clemson, SC, USA.

Eating too fast may increase the risk of weight gain. If you are a fast eater and you want to maintain your healthy weight or stop unhealthy weight gain, it may be worthwhile to slow down the rate of eating.

Even if you have eaten enough for your physiological needs, you can eat beyond those needs because it takes time for your brain to sense and signal that you are full. If you eat fast, by the time your brain knows that you are full, you may have already overeaten. Overeating leads to intake of more calories than you need and those excess calories will store in the body and make you gain weight. Therefore, if you eat slowly and give your body time to understand and signal fullness, you may have a better chance of stopping before you overeat.

Scientists are working to uncover the mechanisms that link slow eating and weight gain prevention. When eating fast, you put lot of calories in before you feel full. Scientific evidence supports the idea that eating slower may reduce the calorie intake and eventually prevent unhealthy weight gain.

A recent exciting study conducted by researchers at Clemson University, South Carolina, USA showed that the calorie intake of overeating individuals who consume larger amounts of food can be controlled by learning to eat slowly. Nutrition Remarks interviewed the principle investigator, Dr. Eric R Muth, Ph.D., of the study and a simplified version of the conversation is given below:

Question from Nutrition Remarks: What scientific evidence is in favor of the fact that fast eaters eat more compared to slow eaters?

Answer from Dr. Muth: Studies have found an association with fast eating, obesity and weight gain. However, interventions to slow down eating do not always lead to weight loss. So, it is possible that eating rate is associated with obesity and weight gain, not as a causal factor, but just somehow as a coincidence.

Also, it is known that obese individual eat faster and take larger bites, both of which increase the calorie intake. On the other hand, a study from Dr. Martin’s research group at Pennington Biomedical Research Center showed that reduced eating rate could decrease calorie intake in men but not in women. Therefore, these observations that some scientific studies show reducing eating rate could reduce overall calorie intake should be more intensely studied and define criteria and recommendations in detail. For example, slowing eating rate will likely not help a person who already eats slowly.

Question: What are the known/proposed mechanisms that explain how fast eating helps high calorie intake?

Answer: The general idea is that it takes time for satiety cues (a signal from your body to brain to tell that you are full) to stop eating. People can eat fast and eat too much before the cues have time to work. Slowing eating speed gives more time for the cues to work and for people to pay more attention to the cues.

Question: How do you like to describe the bite-rate counter?

Answer: The bite rate counter is a wristwatch like small device that can be worn on the wrist of the hand use to eat. It automatically counts bites.

Question: How does the bite rate monitoring by the bite-rate counter help to reduce calorie intake?

Answer: It cues people in a way that gives faster feedback than the body’s own satiety cues. In other words, it will tell how fast you eat. Therefore, you can adjust yourself to eat slowly during the meal. One of the other interesting advantages of the bite-rate counter is that it can be programmed in a variety of different ways according to the needs of the user. Therefore, the bite counter can have pre-set limits that show a person when to stop.

Question: Can the bite counter be used easily and how practical it is?

Answer: Yes, it is worn like a watch and can be used in real-time. Data stored on the device can be downloaded to a computer if desired. In addition, the settings on the device can be customized using computer software.

Question: Your study shows that only the big meal eaters can benefit by this intervention. How do you like to describe the fact that calorie intake was not reduced in those who ate less than 400kcal in your study?

Answer: Yes, it seems that slowing bite-rate with the bite-rate counter may be most effective for individuals who consume larger amounts of food but not individuals who eat small meals. This is called a ceiling effect. When the baseline is high, it is easier to make it go down than up. The opposite is a floor effect. When the baseline is low, it is easier to make it go up than down.

Question: How do you describe the psychological effect of bite counter?

Answer: In one sense you can think of it as a biofeedback device. In another sense, you can think of it as a non-judgmental reminder.

This news release was based on the original scientific article published by Dr. Muth in Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Additional general background information was acquired from PubMed and NIH sources.

Original work; Scisco et al., Slowing bite-rate reduces energy intake: an application of the bite counter device. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Aug ;111(8):1231-5.

Dr. Eric R. Muth Ph.D., is a Professor and Director of Human Factors Institute, Department of Psychology, Clemson University. Dr. Muth has specific expertise in measuring human physiology in free living humans. His current work focuses on tracking intake behavior using simple, wearable devices.

Adam Hoover and Dr. Muth, are partners in a company, “Bite Technologies,” that markets and sells a bite-counter device. Clemson University has filed a US patent for intellectual property known as “The Weight Watch”, serial no. 61/144,203 having a filing date of January 13, 2009. Bite Technologies has licensed the method from Clemson University and has been funded by South Carolina Launch, a state organization that incubates startup companies associated with university intellectual property. Bite Technologies manufactures self-contained, portable versions of the Bite Counter.

Dr. Muth would like to acknowledge his main collaborator and business partner, Dr. Adam Hoover, Associate Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Jenna Scisco, a PhD candidate in his lab, was the lead investigator on the slow eating paper. Yujie Dong, a PhD candidate in Dr. Hoover’s lab also collaborated on the project.

Specific funding for the paper: Jenna Scisco was funded on a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate(NDSEG) fellowship through the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Funding for experiment materials was provided by a Creative Inquiry grant from Clemson University.

More about Dr. Eric Muth and work

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UT4lA85bhHY

http://www.icountbites.com/

http://www.parl.clemson.edu/~ahoover/bite-counter/

Written by Nalin Siriwardhana, PhD. and Amanda Fields

 

Copyright © 2012 Nutrition Remarks. All rights reserved