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Coffee Reduces Diabetes Risk

Coffee Reduces Diabetes Risk

Coffee and type II diabetes (T2D)

Frontier Voice of Nutrition Remarks (June 11, 2012) <<<Print PDF>>>

NalinSiriwardhana, Ph.D., interviewed Dr. Fausta Natella, Ph.D., from the National Research Institute for Food and Nutrition, in Rome.

Now it is clear that coffee can help to reduce the type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Dr. Fausta Natella, Ph.D., and Dr. Cristina Scaccini Ph.D., performed an in depth analysis on available scientific information on coffee and its effect on diabetes risk. Their analysis showed that coffee may reduce the T2D risk regardless of race, gender, geographic distribution, or the type of coffee consumed (i.e., caffeinated or decaffeinated). Further, these experts suggest that moderate coffee drinking (3-4 cups a day) will be sufficient to be benefitted against T2D.

Nutrition Remarks interviewed Dr. Fausta Natella, Ph.D., who performed this analysis in collaboration with Dr. Cristina Scaccini Ph.D.

Question from Nutrition Remarks: What is the role of coffee in T2D and are there any effect on type I diabetes (T1D) as well?

Answer from Dr. Natella: Several epidemiological evidences indicate that there is an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of T2D. It means the higher is the consumption the lower is the risk to develop this disease. On the contrary, no effect of coffee consumption on T1D has been observed. It is however worth to mention that the etiology of the T2D and T1D is very different so that the conclusions obtained from studies on T2D cannot be extrapolated to T1D.

Question: In general, how many coffees a day is known to improve diabetes health effects?

Answer: The inverse association between coffee consumption and T2D risk is dose-dependent. The last published scientific analysis (meta-analysis by Huxley in 2009) shows about 7% reduction of the risk per cup of coffee consumed per day. Though it has beneficial effect on T2D, we cannot recommend increasing the coffee consumption as a strategy for the prevention of diabetes as a high consumption of coffee can also have some negative effects on health (e.g. increasing pressure and cholesterol level, causing anxiety and sleeplessness in susceptible individuals). Hence, we suggest a moderate coffee consumption not exceeding 3-4 cups per day.

Question: In general, the effects of coffee are preventive or therapeutic or both?

Answer: The effects of coffee are only preventive. The few and contrasting data on the possible effects of coffee consumption on diabetic patients do not allow us to draw any definitive conclusion; we can only state that a moderate coffee consumption does not seem to be contraindicated in diabetics.

Question: What are the most effective bioactive compounds in the coffee that can prevent T2D?

Answer: Generally, the effects of coffee on health are related to caffeine that owns several “pharmacological” effects on human body, mainly at the level of the central nervous system. However, coffee contains several other bioactive molecules (over 1000 chemicals have been identified in roasted coffee). Among them polyphenolic compounds are the most abundant and may play a significant role in protecting our body from T2D.

Question: What is the role of coffee polyphenols in reducing T2D?

Answer: Many different mechanisms have been proposed to explain how coffee-phenolic compounds exert their action. However, at the moment, there is no conclusive scientific consent about them, and it is not possible to define exact mechanisms.

Question: What is your opinion on proper time gaps between meal and coffee? Should there be a time gap?

Answer: According to a recent epidemiological study published by Sartorelli and colleagues in 2011, the anti-diabetic effect of coffee is not only related to frequency and amount of coffee consumption, but is also related to the modality of the consumption. In particular, one study has shown that the consumption of coffee after lunch further reduces the risk of contracting this disease. It is however important to stress that only one evidence is not sufficient to draw any definitive scientific conclusion. Thus, to give any suggestion, further researches are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

Question: Does decaffeinated coffee have same or different effects compared to regular coffee?

Answer: Epidemiological studies indicate that the association between coffee consumption and T2D is valid also for decaffeinated coffee. That’s why we think that the anti-diabetes role of coffee is not only due to caffeine, but also due to other bioactive compounds in the coffee.

Question: Is there any evidence to suggest that espresso have more pronounced effects than regular coffee? Also, does it make any difference when adding sugar, cream and milk into coffee?

Answer: No, the capacity of coffee to decrease D2T risk seems to be the same whatever is the coffee (brand, blend, amount of powder used for preparation, etc). Also the use of milk, cream, sugar and/or other sweeteners does not seem to drastically reduce the beneficial effect of coffee.

Question: What are the other significant health benefits of coffee other than reducing the diabetes risk?

Answer: Coffee consumption has also been correlated with the reduced risk of colon cancer and neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer and Parkinson).

However, it is really important to keep in mind that we can not recommend a high consumption of coffee as it has some negative effect on our health (e.g. increasing pressure and cholesterol level, causing anxiety and sleeplessness in susceptible individuals).

Question: What other important information we did not discuss here?

Answer: We should never forget that foods/beverages are not drugs, and that foods/beverages are not good or bad in themselves; it is only the diet as a whole (and lifestyle) that may be good or bad. The influence of coffee consumption on diabetes should always be set into healthy eating and lifestyle practices. We have to remember that coffee may help, but diabetes has to be prevented in first place by controlling overweight and obesity and by increasing physical activity.

This news release was based on the original scientific article published by Drs. Natella and Scaccini in the Nutrition Reviews journal. Additional general background information was acquired from PubMed and NIH sources.

Original work; Natella et al., (2012) Role of coffee in modulation of diabetes risk . Nutrition Reviews 70:4 207-217

Dr. Fausta Natella, Ph.D., is a researcher at the National Research Institute for Food and Nutrition, Rome (Italy). Her research activities focus on the study of the effects of diet, foods, isolated nutrients, non-nutrients, and their metabolites on human health.

Dr. Cristina Scaccini, Ph.D., is a senior scientist at the National Research Institute for Food and Nutrition (INRAN),Rome, and is Principal Investigator of the research team “Bioavailability, metabolism and biological effects of dietary bioactive molecules”.

More about Dr. Natella work


Written by Nalin Siriwardhana, Ph.D. and Shambhunath Choudhary, DVM Ph.D

Copyright © 2012 Nutrition Remarks. All rights reserved

Flavonoids may lower the risk of fatal cardiovascular disease

Flavonoids may lower the risk of fatal cardiovascular disease

Even small amounts of flavonoids may offer positive health benefits.

Frontier Voice of Nutrition Remarks (April 11, 2012) Print PDF

NalinSiriwardhana, Ph.D., interviewed Dr. Marji McCullough, Ph.D., Strategic Director, Nutritional Epidemiology, Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society.

A new study supports possible benefits of flavonoids against fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The study suggests that even small amounts of flavonoids may reduce the risk of CVD.

CVD is the leading cause of death in US and the same is true for the rest of the world. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says that 1 in every 3 deaths in US is CVD related. With steadily growing advancements in prevention and treatment options available, CVD is still the number one cause of death in US. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that by 2030, almost 23.6 million people will die from CVDs. CVDs are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels. WHO states that the major risk factors for CVD, primarily heart disease and stroke, are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and harmful use of alcohol.

Scientific evidence suggests that CVD risk can be greatly reduced simply by reducing harmful fats (such as trans fats), including beneficial fats (primarily omega 3 fats) and including various flavonoids in our daily diet. Flavonoids are multifunctional compounds that improve human health due to their promising effects against inflammation, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and other diseases, such as CVD. Various types of beneficial flavonoids are adequately present in fruits, vegetables, grains, roots, stems, flowers, tea, and wine.

In particular to CVD risk prevention, flavonoids can neutralize the harmful free radicals/oxidants and suppress the production of inflammatory molecules called pro-inflammatory cytokines. Free radicals and inflammatory mediators can damage endothelial cells that line the blood vesicles and lead to the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Further, flavonoids can reduce the formation of plaques that block the blood vessels. Blocked blood vessels can cause stroke and heart attacks. Also, flavonoids can lower the bad cholesterol directly and help to reduce CVD risk. Dr. McCullough at the American Cancer Society has analyzed the relationship between CVD and flavonoid intake and showed that flavonoids even at relatively low levels can significantly reduce the risk of CVD. Nutrition Remarks interviewed Dr. Marji McCullough, Ph.D., the principle investigator of the study, and a simplified version of the conversation is given below:

Question from Nutrition Remarks: What are the most effective flavonoid classes against CVD?

Answer from Dr. McCullough: In our study, flavones were most strongly related to lower risk, primarily among women and primarily for ischemic heart disease. However, we also observed a lower risk of CVD in men and women combined with greater intakes of anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins as well as with all flavonoids combined.

Question: Your recent publication reported the total flavonoid intake of the study population. However, if the important individual flavonoids are concerned, what is the average daily intake of these highly promising flavonoids?

Answer: Median intakes reported in our study is men and women combined: median is perhaps better to use since mean can be influenced by more extreme values; we compared means with others’ because that was what they listed.

Median intake in mg/day

Total flavonoids – 201.9 (mean: 268)

Anthocyanidins – 9.8 (mean 12.2)

Flavan-3-ols – 16.8 (mean 29.9)

Flavone – 1.1 (mean 1.4)

Flavonol – 13.0 (mean 15.5)

Proanthocyanidins – 132 (mean 185.3)

**Important: These were calculated from a FFQ which is likely to underestimate intakes somewhat because not all flavonoid containing foods were on the questionnaire.

Question: What foods are the rich sources of these flavonoids?

Answer: As we showed in the Table 01 of our recent publication about Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults in the “American Journal of Clinical Nutrition”, blueberries, red wine, and strawberries are rich sources of anthocyanidins. Apples, black tea, blueberries, chocolate, and red wine are rich sources of flavan-3-ols. Citrus fruit and juices, herbal teas are rich sources of flavanones. Celery, garlic, green peppers, and herbal tea are rich sources of flavones. Blueberries, garlic, kale, onions, spinach, tea, broccoli, redwine, cherry and tomatoes are rich sources of flavonols. Apples, black tea, blueberries, chocolate, mixed nuts, peanuts, red wine, strawberries, and walnuts are rich sources of proanthocyanidins. Soy products and peanuts are rich sources of isoflavones.

Question: What is the average daily intake (or average physiological concentrations) of those flavonoids in general population?

Answer: In 2007, Dr. Won O. Song and colleagues from the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University reported an estimated dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources in U.S. Adults. According to this report, in men and women aged 19-70+, mean intakes were: total flavonoids- 189.7 mg/day; anthocyanidins- 3.1mg/day; flavan-3-ols- 156.5mg/day; flavones 1.6mg/day, flavonols, 12.9mg/day (no proanthocyanidins). It is also worth noting that their estimates for isoflavones (main sources are soy foods), were 1.1, similar to ours (mean 0.7mg/day), because Americans in general eat little soy.

Note that researchers often combine different flavonoid subtypes together, and often use different databases, which make it harder to compare amounts of subtypes consumed

Question: What are the common/popular mechanisms mediated by flavonoids to suppress CVD risk?

Answer: Potential biological mechanisms include: anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, reduced LDL cholesterol oxidation, regulated endothelial nitric oxide synthesis and inhibition of platelet function.

Question: Your CVD data are very strong and promising due to the large sample size and have both male and female subjects. Can you also talk about the cancer prevention data from this study?

Answer: The study of flavonoids and cancer will be our next step.

This news release was based on the original scientific article published by Dr. McCullough in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Additional general background information was acquired from PubMed and NIH sources.

Original work; McCullough et al., Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults.Am J ClinNutr February 2012 ajcn.016634. J Am

Dr. Marji McCullough, Ph.D., is the Strategic Director, Nutritional Epidemiology, Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society. Dr. McCullough is a leading scientist involved in researching, analyzing and translation of the effects of dietary bioactive compounds and obesity on cancer and cardiovascular diseases. She has published more than 130 peer-reviewed publications in related sciences.

Dr. McCullough would like to acknowledge funding provided by the American Cancer Society, and collaborators from Tufts University were supported in part with funds from the NIH and the USDA.

More about Dr. McCulloughand work



Written by NalinSiriwardhana, PhD.


Copyright © 2012 Nutrition Remarks. All rights reserved

Can Vitamin D reduce the breast cancer risk?

Can Vitamin D reduce the breast cancer risk?

Is there a link between Vitamin D and Breast Cancer Risk?

Written by NalinSiriwardhana, Ph.D, Editor In Chief for Nutrition Remarks Knoxville, TN, USA

Reviewed by Theresa Shao, MD, Beth Israel Medical Center and Continuum Cancer Centers of New York, New York, New York, USA

Nutrition Remarks Health News Highlights (February 07, 2012)

Scientific evidence suggests that the breast cancer risk might be greatly reduced by vitamin D (Sunshine Vitamin). While some studies show no or less beneficial effects, many studies provide strong evidence that vitamin D can lower the breast cancer risk. Cancer and nutrition expert, Dr. Theresa Shao, MD, and colleagues, analyzed the pre-clinical, epidemiological, and clinical data published within the last 20 years and suggested that vitamin D may have a promising potential to reduce breast cancer risk. Summarized below are selected important information based on her review article published in The Oncologist scientific journal.

Vitamin D is critical for a healthy life. While human bone health and mineral balance (specifically phosphorous and calcium) can be greatly affected by inadequate vitamin D levels, many laboratory studies show that Vitamin D deficiency can promote cancer development in animals. Accordingly, women diagnosed with breast cancer often tend to have lower serum vitamin D levels.

Epidemiological studies showed that women who take adequate amounts of vitamin D or expose to sunlight (to naturally produce Vitamin D in the body) have a significantly lower risk of developing breast cancer. The prevention is more noticeable in younger premenopausal women compared to the postmenopausal women. Also, one study showed that Vitamin D can reduce ER (estrogen receptor) positive breast cancers (most common breast cancer which grow in response to estrogen) in postmenopausal women.

However, vitamin D deficiency is a growing problem in the world. Vitamin D deficiency is even associated with obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Oily fish, mushrooms, eggs, fortified dairy products are known dietary sources of vitamin D. Plant based Vitamin D is called ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and animal based form is called cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). The current recommended daily Vitamin D intake for adults under age 70 years is 600 IU (International Units) and 800 IU after 70 years.

How does vitamin D work against breast cancer?

In preclinical studies, vitamin D has been shown to reduce inflammation, specifically, the common inflammation reactions mediated by molecules called cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nuclear factor -kB (NF-kB). Vitamin D can increase the expression of E-cadherin, which prevents breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Moreover, several studies suggested that vitamin D can also block synthesis and biological actions of estrogen. In addition to those, vitamin D plays a significant role at the cellular level by controlling cell growth, differentiation as well as cell death.

What can go wrong with vitamin D?

The recommended upper limit of vitamin D is 4000 IU/day for adults. According to the Office of Dietary Supplements (National Institute of Health USA), extremely high levels of vitamin D can cause toxicity which leads to anorexia, weight loss, polyuria, and heart arrhythmias. But sun exposure or eating vitamin D containing food would not lead to an increase in vitamin D level to such high levels.

In general, vitamin D deficiency is a growing problem in the world. Aging and several disease conditions including obesity, digestive system problems and cancer can further lower vitamin D levels in the body. Over the last few years, research in the vitamin D area shows a steady increase due to the recognized importance for human health. In case of breast cancer, available scientific evidence suggests that vitamin D status needs careful attention.

This information is primarily based on the following article published in The Oncologist journal. Some general background information was acquired from PubMed and NIH sources.

Shao et al., Vitamin D and Breast Cancer.The Oncologist first published on January 10, 2012;doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2011-0278

Copyright © 2012 Nutrition Remarks. All rights reserved


Can the Mediterranean diet reduce colon cancer risk?

Can the Mediterranean diet reduce colon cancer risk?

Frontier Voice of Nutrition Remarks (December 20, 2011)

Nalin Siriwardhana, PhD, interviewed Prof. Zora Djuric from the Departments of Family Medicine and Environmental Health Sciences at the University of Michigan

Diet and cancer expert, Prof. Zora Djuric, highlighted that the Mediterranean diet contains promising active compounds to reduce colon cancer risk. According to her most recent publication in the Nutrition Review journal, the Mediterranean diet contains not only plenty of beneficial components such as fruits, vegetables, herbs, fish, and olive oil but also low levels of harmful fats and red meat.

Unhealthy inflammation associated with unhealthy dietary patterns can increase colon cancer risk. Further, she added that the colon cancer risk is high for those who live in parts of the industrialized world such as the United States. Although in Greece, where people routinely consume a Mediterranean diet, the colon cancer rate is very low. However, the rate has increased among the people who migrated from Greece to industrialized countries. Using validated scientific information, Prof. Djuric clearly explained that the Mediterranean diet has multiple beneficial effects to lower colon cancer risk and improve colon health.

Nutrition Remarks interviewed Prof. Djuric due to the importance of her information for public health. A simplified version of the conversation is as follows:

Question from Nutrition Remarks: What are the major differences between a Mediterranean diet and a typical American or Western diet?

Answer from Dr. Djuric: The Mediterranean diet has higher amounts of plant-based foods like fruits, vegetables, herbs, cereals, legumes, and olive oil compared to the American or Western diet. Also, a Mediterranean diet has a higher variety of plant-based nutrients than the American or Western diet. The Mediterranean diet also includes plentiful fish while American and Western diets contain more red meat/meat products. Another significant difference is that the Mediterranean diet contains beneficial olive oil, but the American and Western diets contain high levels of other fats such as trans fats from processed foods and saturated fats from meat.

Question: Why is the variety of fruits and vegetable important?

Answer: Different fruits, vegetables, and herbs contain different beneficial compounds such as anti-oxidants, vitamins, minerals, and nutrients. Importantly, different fruits, vegetables, and herbs also contain different types and amounts of beneficial phytochemicals such as resveratrol, catechins, flavonoids, carotenoids, etc. Therefore, the preventive benefits are increased with increased varieties versus using a single or few varieties in the diet.

Question: What is the link between colon cancer and inflammation?

Answer: There are multiple links between inflammation and cancer. Specifically, one of the harmful compounds produced by omega 6 fats is associated with inflammation in the colon. It is called prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and this metabolite of omega-6 fats is well-known to be increased in colon cancer. Omega-3 fats, such as those found in fish, cannot be metabolized to form harmful PGE2. Instead omega-3 makes PGE3 that is less inflammatory.

Question: Howdoes the Mediterranean diet reduce inflammation?

Answer: The Mediterranean diet can reduce inflammation in several ways.

Fish contain higher levels of beneficial omega-3 fats called eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docashexanoic acid (DHA). EPA plays a major role by reducing PGE2 production, thus greatly reducing inflammation.

Several anti-inflammatory phytochemicals such as resveratrol, catechins, flavonoids, carotenoids, etc. have multiple benefits including PGE2-reducing effects.

Components of a Mediterranean diet have activities similar to the popular multifunctional drug aspirin. Like aspirin, compounds in the Mediterranean diet can also reduce PGE2 and the enzymes that produce PGE2, called cyclooxygenase (COX), to reduce inflammation. Dr. Rothwell from the University of Oxford showed that long-term aspirin use can reduce colon cancer risk.

Original work: Zora Djuric , The Mediterranean diet: Effects on proteins that mediate fatty acid metabolism in the colon. Nutrition ReviewsVol. 69, No. 12, 730-744 (2012).

Written by Nalin Siriwardhana, PhD

Zora Djuric, PhD, is a Research Professor in the Departments of Family Medicine and Environmental Health Sciences (Nutrition program) at the University of Michigan. She is also a member of the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center. Dr. Djuric has expertise with research on cancer risk biomarkers related to different dietary patterns, focusing mainly on clinical studies. Her studies have typically included individuals at increased cancer risk. Her current focus is on colon cancer prevention using a Mediterranean exchange list diet.

More about Prof. Zora Djuric and work




Copyright © 2011 Nutrition Remarks. All rights reserved

Consumption of well-done meats and breast cancer risk

Consumption of well-done meats and breast cancer risk

Can green tea reverse these adverse effects?

Written by Suhanki Rajapaksa, MBBS (Nutrition Remarks writer), Reviewed by Dr. Shambhunath Choudhary, DVM, PhD

Health News Highlights (April 17, 2012) <<Print PDF>>

Breast cancer is the top cancer in women both in the developed and the developing world. One in every eight women is at risk of developing breast cancer over the course of a lifetime. Among various factors such as age, family history, and genetics, lifestyle (especially diet) has also been shown to be involved in causing breast cancer.

About 5 to 10% of breast cancers are associated with abnormal changes (mutations) in genes inherited from parents. But around 85% of breast cancers are attributable to long-term exposure to carcinogens (cancer-causing substances), such as those present in foods cooked in certain methods, despite an absence of a family history of the disease. One such carcinogen is 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, abbreviated as PhIP. PhIP belongs to a group of compounds called heterocyclic amines (HCAs); these compounds are formed during cooking of meat from the reaction of creatinine, amino acids, and sugar. However, substantially more HCAs are formed when meats are cooked at higher temperatures and for longer periods of time. An abundance of PhIP is found particularly in well-done meats (charred on the outside, thoroughly brown and chewy on the inside).

In a recent publication, Dr. Shambhunath Choudhary from the Anticancer Molecular Oncology Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee Knoxville, report that daily consumption of well-done meat – as is often seen in the western diet – may lead to breast cancer development. The laboratory is led by prominent scientist Prof. Hwa-Chain R. Wang and has published several exciting findings revealing early cellular level changes associated with prolonged exposure to environmental carcinogens present in tobacco and dietary choices, which in turn leads to undesirable clinical outcomes such as cancer. Prof. Wang’s lab has introduced a “cellular model system” that can easily recognize the early stages of breast cancer caused by various environmental carcinogens, and has extended the use of this model system to test various natural compounds that can prevent breast carcinogenesis.

For normal cells to grow and survive, they need growth factors (naturally-occurring substances that stimulate cell growth and multiplication) and an ability to attach or anchor to the framework of tissues that provides support for the cells to grow. Using the above-mentioned cellular model, Dr. Choudhary showed that when breast cells had prolonged exposure to the dietary carcinogen PhIP, at a concentration seen in human blood, their need for a surface for attachment decreased and they no longer depended on anchorage to a tissue (anchorage independence). PhIP exposure also lowered the cells’ dependence on growth factors and increased their expression of a growth-related gene and protein. These characteristics, which are commonly found in breast cancer cells, help the cells to grow rapidly and spread throughout the body without being dependent on the original tissue for nutrition and support. In other words, normal breast cells become cancerous upon prolonged exposure to PhIP. In addition, a single exposure to PhIP causes an increase in the mechanisms that lead to increased cell growth, multiplication, and migration (movement and spread).

Using the same cellular model, Dr. Choudhary further studied the preventive effects of substances found in green tea (catechins), on breast cancer development. They reported that epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) – two major components of green tea catechins – were effective in reducing PhIP-induced initiation and progression of breast cancer. The cancer-related cellular characteristics, as discussed above, such as reduced dependence on growth factors, anchorage-independent growth, and increased cell proliferation, were also reduced significantly by exposure to both ECG and EGCG.

Though the exact ways in which PhIP induces the gene modifications leading to breast cancer remain to be studied, findings by Dr. Choudhary and Prof. Wang have provided valuable information about the risk of human breast cancer development in a population consuming higher amounts of well-done meat daily. The cellular model described in this study has the potential to screen and validate novel agents to prevent breast cancer.

Correctly identifying risk factors and early detection could play a major role in reducing breast cancer incidence. Even better is understanding and abstaining from risky behavior that could increase the chance of the disease occurring. As the above research shows, eating well-done meats in excess or over a prolonged time period could increase the risk of breast cancer. Therefore, the consumption of such foods should be done with caution. As HCA intake is determined by the meat-cooking technique and doneness level (rare, medium, well-done, and very well-done), it is possible to reduce HCA formation in meat by reducing heat and length of cooking. Its formation may also be reduced by pre-heating meat in a microwave oven, which removes creatinine and therefore reduces the amount of HCA formed. In addition, adding known cancer preventing agents such as green tea to your diet could also help to decrease the added risk associated with adherence to a diet rich in carcinogenic material.

This information is primarily based on the following article published in the Carcinogenesis journal. Some general background information was acquired from PubMed health, NIH, and WHO sources.

Shambhunath Choudhary, Shilpa Sood, Robert L. Donnell, and Hwa-Chain R. Wang. Intervention of human breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. Carcinogenesis. Online publication February 3, 2012; 1–10.


Shambhunath Choudhary, Shilpa Sood, Robert L. Donnell, and Hwa-Chain R. Wang. Intervention of human breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. Carcinogenesis. Online publication February 3, 2012; 1–10.

World Health Organization. Breast cancer: prevention and control. http://www.who.int/cancer/detection/breastcancer/en/. Accessed April 5, 2012.