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Mediterranean Diet May Reduce the Risk of Major Heart Diseases

Mediterranean Diet May Reduce the Risk of Major Heart Diseases

A diet rich in Fruits, Nuts & olive oil can keep heart diseases at bay

Health News Highlights of Nutrition Remarks (June 07, 2013)

Written by Suhanki Rajapaksa, MBBS., Health News Writer for Nutrition Remarks, Solon, OH, USA.

Reviewed by Dr. MA Martinez-González MD, PhD, MPH., Professor and  Chairman, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health. Medical School, University of Navarra, Spain.

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is explained as narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. CHD is also called coronary artery disease and is the most common type of heart disease. In the United States, CHD is the number one cause of death for both men and women.  It alone costs the United States $108.9 billion each year, when taking into account the cost of health care services, medications, and lost productivity.

Grilled salmonLifestyle changes, medicines, and medical procedures can help prevent or treat CHD. These treatments may reduce the risk of related health problems. Among these preventive lifestyle modifications, dietary interventions have come upon close scrutiny in the recent past.

The Mediterranean diet in particular has been under the spotlight with regards to prevention of heart diseases. The traditional Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high intake of olive oil, fruit, nuts, vegetables, and cereals; a moderate intake of fish and poultry; a low intake of dairy products, red meat, processed meats and sweets; and wine in moderation, consumed with meals.

A team of researchers led by Drs. Ramón Estruch of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid Department of Internal Medicine and Miguel A. Martínez-González of the Preventive Medicine and Public Health dept, University of Navarra, Pamplona Spain has  conducted an interesting study which highlights the benefit of a Mediterranean diet with regards to preventing CHD. They studied a starting group of 7447 people from 2003 to June 2009 randomly assigning them into three groups according to their Diets.

The differentiation of the groups was mainly by the consumption of Mediterranean & non-Mediterranean food items.

The 2 groups on a Mediterranean diet were encouraged to eat the following items:

*Olive oil

*Tree nuts and peanuts

*Fresh Fruits


*Fish & other seafood


*Sofrito sauce

*White meat

*Wine with meals (IF the subjects were habitual drinkers)

Soda drinks, commercial bakery goods such as sweets & pastries, spread fats, Red & processed meats were discouraged from their diet.

One of these two groups received virgin olive oil as a gift; the other Mediterranean group received mixed tree nuts (wlanuts, almonds and hazelnuts).

The third group was the control group and they were encouraged to eat:

*Low fat dairy products

*Bread, Pasta, Rice

*Potatoes, Fresh vegetables & Fruit

* Lean fish & seafood.

They were asked to stay away from all vegetable oils including olive oil, nuts and fried snacks, red and processed fatty meats. fatty fish, canned seafood in oil, and sofrito, spread fats.

It’s important to note that none of the people enrolled in this study had a history of cardiovascular disease at the time the study started. But they did have risk factors such as either type 2 diabetes mellitus or at least three of the following which are identified to be major risk factors for heart disease; smoking, hypertension, elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, being overweight or obese, or a family history of premature coronary heart disease.

Beginning on October 1, 2003, participants were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary intervention groups: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts, or a control group whose diet included low fat food and excluded the main Mediterranean dietary components as explained above. Questionnaires were given to the participants to test their diet and physical activity yearly. On a random basis urine & blood product tests were run to test if the subjects were complying with the recommended diets.

Over the time frame of a median of 4.8 years the study subjects were observed for cardiovascular events – Primarily Myocardial infarction, Stroke and Death from Cardiovascular causes.

Interestingly the groups on a Mediterranean diet supplemented with either virgin olive oil or nuts showed an absolute risk reduction of 3 cardiovascular events per 1000 person-years at risk. For a relative risk reduction of approximately 30%, among high risk persons who were initially free of cardiovascular disease.

The risk of stroke was reduced significantly in the two Mediterranean-diet groups.

The findings in this study confirm the observations made in previous studies which have shown that a Mediterranean diet help to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, And are comparable to the findings in the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification trial which showed no benefit of a low-fat dietary approach on cardiovascular risk reduction. It also supports an inverse association between the Mediterranean diet or olive-oil consumption and incidence of stroke as proven by previous epidemiological studies. The study takes the observations of the Lyon Diet heart study a step further by taking into account a larger number of cardiovascular events over time on at-risk persons and by studying primary prevention (persons who were initially healthy) instead of secondary prevention (only survivors of a heart attack, as were the participants of the Lyon study).

Though further research will be necessary to explore the exact causes and mechanisms of risk reduction, these trials undoubtedly favor the idea that a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts, plays an important role in the primary prevention of coronary heart diseases among high-risk persons.

And it will be beneficial for us all to add more nuts, olive oil and Fresh fruits & Vegetables to our diets as well as substitute fish and white meat for red and processed meats.

This information is primarily based on the following article published by Drs. Ramón Estruch and Miguel A. Martínez-González. Additional information abstracted from PubMed, CDC , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), American Heart Association Journals, American journal of clinical nutrition and other reliable sources.

Estruch R., et al Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2013, 368:1279-1290.

Other resources:










How Bariatric Surgery helps to reduce Diabetes?

How Bariatric Surgery helps to reduce Diabetes?

Can bariatric surgery completely take care of diabetes?

Frontier Voice of Nutrition Remarks (February 23, 2013) Nalin Siriwardhana, Ph.D., interviewed Prof. Samuel Klein, M.D., an expert in metabolism and human Nutrition. <<<Print PDF>>>

An overview of Bariatric Surgery - Nutrition Remarks

An overview of Bariatric Surgery – Nutrition Remarks

Bariatric surgery has become an invaluable tool in reducing health complications associated with severe obesity (morbid obesity). Bariatric surgery also called weight loss surgery is a surgical procedure which can ultimately restrict/reduce energy intake by limiting food intake or absorption or both. The type of bariatric surgery is depending upon variety of factors including person’s health status, preference and available options to choose. The most commonly performed surgeries are gastric banding, roux-en-y gastric bypass, and sleeve gsatrectomy.

While obesity is a well-known cause for type 2 diabetes (T2D), reduction of obesity has been similarly known to reduce T2D. This is due to improved insulin release and action.

In order to clarify the effects of bariatric surgery on T2D, we interviewed Prof. Samuel Klein.

Question from Nutrition Remarks: What is bariatric surgery and how it helps to reduce diabetes?

Answer from Dr. Klein: Bariatric surgery represents a series of gastrointestinal surgical procedures that help obese people lose weight and improve their health. The marked weight loss achieved by bariatric surgery make it the most effective available therapy for type 2 diabetes (T2D), because it improves beta-cell function (beta-cell produce and release insulin) and insulin sensitivity, which are the two major factors involved in the development of diabetes.

Question: Who are qualified for bariatric surgery?

Answer: Patients with class III obesity (BMI ³ 40 kg/m2) or those with class II obesity (BMI 35.0-39.9 kg/m2) and one or more severe obesity-related medical complications (e.g., hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, heart failure, or sleep apnea) are eligible for surgery.

Question: What is the average cost of a general bariatric surgery?

Answer: Cost can vary depending on the type surgery and hospital in which the surgery is performed. In general, at present, a bariatric surgery in United States will cost between $15,000 – $25,000.

Question: Are there any side effects/complications associated with bariatric surgery?

Answer: With an experienced surgeon, this is a safe procedure compared with other surgical procedures. However, there are still important risks, including postoperative infections, pulmonary embolism, nutritional deficiencies, and even death.

Question: How patients should eat after the surgery for better outcomes?

Answer: The key to losing weight after surgery is to eat fewer calories than before surgery. Eating behavior after surgery depends on the specific surgical procedure and the patient, but in all cases patients who lose weight after surgery have reduced their food intake. The mechanism(s) responsible for the decrease in food intake after bariatric surgery is not exactly known and is likely to differ among procedures.

This news release was a follow-up based on the following original scientific article published by Prof. Samuel Klein.

Bradley et al Effects of bariatric surgery on glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes. in Gastroenterology. 2012;143(4):897-912.

Additional general background information was acquired from PubMed and NIH sources.

Prof. Klein would like to acknowledge that he is a shareholder of Aspire Bariatrics and serves on Scientific Advisory Boards for Vivus, Takeda and Novo Nordisk.

Prof. Samuel Klein M.D. is the William H. Danforth Professor of Medicine, Director of the Center for Human Nutrition, Director of the Center for Applied Research

Dr. Samuel Klein., M.D.

Dr. Samuel Klein., M.D.

Sciences, Chief of the Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Sciences, and Medical Director of the Weight Management Program at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri. Dr. Klein received an MD degree from Temple University Medical School in 1979 and an MS Degree in Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1984. He completed residency training in Internal Medicine and a Clinical Nutrition fellowship at University Hospital in Boston, a National Institutes of Health Nutrition and Metabolism Research fellowship at Harvard Medical School, and a Gastroenterology fellowship at The Mt.Sinai Hospital in New York. He is board certified in Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology, and Nutrition.

Dr. Klein is past-president of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity and the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, and inaugral chair of the Integrative Physiology of Obesity and Diabetes NIH study section. He was elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation in 1996 and to the American Association of Physicians

in 2008. Dr. Klein has had consistent R01 funding from the NIH since 1990, and has published more than 350 papers in nutrition, metabolism, and obesity. He has received numerous awards for his research, including the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Miles and Shirley Fiterman Foundation Award in Nutrition and the AGA Masters Award for Outstanding Achievement in Basic or Clinical Research in Digestive Sciences, the Daniel P. Schuster Distinguished Investigator Award in Clinical and Translational Science from Washington University School of Medicine, and The Obesity Society TOPS Research Achievement Award.

Dr. Klein’s research activities are focused on understanding the mechanisms responsible for metabolic dysfunction associated with weight gain and obesity, and the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

More about Dr. Klein


Written by Nalin Siriwardhana, Ph.D.


Copyright © 2013 Nutrition Remarks. All rights reserved


Coffee Reduces Diabetes Risk

Coffee Reduces Diabetes Risk

Coffee and type II diabetes (T2D)

Frontier Voice of Nutrition Remarks (June 11, 2012) <<<Print PDF>>>

NalinSiriwardhana, Ph.D., interviewed Dr. Fausta Natella, Ph.D., from the National Research Institute for Food and Nutrition, in Rome.

Now it is clear that coffee can help to reduce the type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Dr. Fausta Natella, Ph.D., and Dr. Cristina Scaccini Ph.D., performed an in depth analysis on available scientific information on coffee and its effect on diabetes risk. Their analysis showed that coffee may reduce the T2D risk regardless of race, gender, geographic distribution, or the type of coffee consumed (i.e., caffeinated or decaffeinated). Further, these experts suggest that moderate coffee drinking (3-4 cups a day) will be sufficient to be benefitted against T2D.

Nutrition Remarks interviewed Dr. Fausta Natella, Ph.D., who performed this analysis in collaboration with Dr. Cristina Scaccini Ph.D.

Question from Nutrition Remarks: What is the role of coffee in T2D and are there any effect on type I diabetes (T1D) as well?

Answer from Dr. Natella: Several epidemiological evidences indicate that there is an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of T2D. It means the higher is the consumption the lower is the risk to develop this disease. On the contrary, no effect of coffee consumption on T1D has been observed. It is however worth to mention that the etiology of the T2D and T1D is very different so that the conclusions obtained from studies on T2D cannot be extrapolated to T1D.

Question: In general, how many coffees a day is known to improve diabetes health effects?

Answer: The inverse association between coffee consumption and T2D risk is dose-dependent. The last published scientific analysis (meta-analysis by Huxley in 2009) shows about 7% reduction of the risk per cup of coffee consumed per day. Though it has beneficial effect on T2D, we cannot recommend increasing the coffee consumption as a strategy for the prevention of diabetes as a high consumption of coffee can also have some negative effects on health (e.g. increasing pressure and cholesterol level, causing anxiety and sleeplessness in susceptible individuals). Hence, we suggest a moderate coffee consumption not exceeding 3-4 cups per day.

Question: In general, the effects of coffee are preventive or therapeutic or both?

Answer: The effects of coffee are only preventive. The few and contrasting data on the possible effects of coffee consumption on diabetic patients do not allow us to draw any definitive conclusion; we can only state that a moderate coffee consumption does not seem to be contraindicated in diabetics.

Question: What are the most effective bioactive compounds in the coffee that can prevent T2D?

Answer: Generally, the effects of coffee on health are related to caffeine that owns several “pharmacological” effects on human body, mainly at the level of the central nervous system. However, coffee contains several other bioactive molecules (over 1000 chemicals have been identified in roasted coffee). Among them polyphenolic compounds are the most abundant and may play a significant role in protecting our body from T2D.

Question: What is the role of coffee polyphenols in reducing T2D?

Answer: Many different mechanisms have been proposed to explain how coffee-phenolic compounds exert their action. However, at the moment, there is no conclusive scientific consent about them, and it is not possible to define exact mechanisms.

Question: What is your opinion on proper time gaps between meal and coffee? Should there be a time gap?

Answer: According to a recent epidemiological study published by Sartorelli and colleagues in 2011, the anti-diabetic effect of coffee is not only related to frequency and amount of coffee consumption, but is also related to the modality of the consumption. In particular, one study has shown that the consumption of coffee after lunch further reduces the risk of contracting this disease. It is however important to stress that only one evidence is not sufficient to draw any definitive scientific conclusion. Thus, to give any suggestion, further researches are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

Question: Does decaffeinated coffee have same or different effects compared to regular coffee?

Answer: Epidemiological studies indicate that the association between coffee consumption and T2D is valid also for decaffeinated coffee. That’s why we think that the anti-diabetes role of coffee is not only due to caffeine, but also due to other bioactive compounds in the coffee.

Question: Is there any evidence to suggest that espresso have more pronounced effects than regular coffee? Also, does it make any difference when adding sugar, cream and milk into coffee?

Answer: No, the capacity of coffee to decrease D2T risk seems to be the same whatever is the coffee (brand, blend, amount of powder used for preparation, etc). Also the use of milk, cream, sugar and/or other sweeteners does not seem to drastically reduce the beneficial effect of coffee.

Question: What are the other significant health benefits of coffee other than reducing the diabetes risk?

Answer: Coffee consumption has also been correlated with the reduced risk of colon cancer and neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer and Parkinson).

However, it is really important to keep in mind that we can not recommend a high consumption of coffee as it has some negative effect on our health (e.g. increasing pressure and cholesterol level, causing anxiety and sleeplessness in susceptible individuals).

Question: What other important information we did not discuss here?

Answer: We should never forget that foods/beverages are not drugs, and that foods/beverages are not good or bad in themselves; it is only the diet as a whole (and lifestyle) that may be good or bad. The influence of coffee consumption on diabetes should always be set into healthy eating and lifestyle practices. We have to remember that coffee may help, but diabetes has to be prevented in first place by controlling overweight and obesity and by increasing physical activity.

This news release was based on the original scientific article published by Drs. Natella and Scaccini in the Nutrition Reviews journal. Additional general background information was acquired from PubMed and NIH sources.

Original work; Natella et al., (2012) Role of coffee in modulation of diabetes risk . Nutrition Reviews 70:4 207-217

Dr. Fausta Natella, Ph.D., is a researcher at the National Research Institute for Food and Nutrition, Rome (Italy). Her research activities focus on the study of the effects of diet, foods, isolated nutrients, non-nutrients, and their metabolites on human health.

Dr. Cristina Scaccini, Ph.D., is a senior scientist at the National Research Institute for Food and Nutrition (INRAN),Rome, and is Principal Investigator of the research team “Bioavailability, metabolism and biological effects of dietary bioactive molecules”.

More about Dr. Natella work


Written by Nalin Siriwardhana, Ph.D. and Shambhunath Choudhary, DVM Ph.D

Copyright © 2012 Nutrition Remarks. All rights reserved

Can Vitamin D reduce the breast cancer risk?

Can Vitamin D reduce the breast cancer risk?

Is there a link between Vitamin D and Breast Cancer Risk?

Written by NalinSiriwardhana, Ph.D, Editor In Chief for Nutrition Remarks Knoxville, TN, USA

Reviewed by Theresa Shao, MD, Beth Israel Medical Center and Continuum Cancer Centers of New York, New York, New York, USA

Nutrition Remarks Health News Highlights (February 07, 2012)

Scientific evidence suggests that the breast cancer risk might be greatly reduced by vitamin D (Sunshine Vitamin). While some studies show no or less beneficial effects, many studies provide strong evidence that vitamin D can lower the breast cancer risk. Cancer and nutrition expert, Dr. Theresa Shao, MD, and colleagues, analyzed the pre-clinical, epidemiological, and clinical data published within the last 20 years and suggested that vitamin D may have a promising potential to reduce breast cancer risk. Summarized below are selected important information based on her review article published in The Oncologist scientific journal.

Vitamin D is critical for a healthy life. While human bone health and mineral balance (specifically phosphorous and calcium) can be greatly affected by inadequate vitamin D levels, many laboratory studies show that Vitamin D deficiency can promote cancer development in animals. Accordingly, women diagnosed with breast cancer often tend to have lower serum vitamin D levels.

Epidemiological studies showed that women who take adequate amounts of vitamin D or expose to sunlight (to naturally produce Vitamin D in the body) have a significantly lower risk of developing breast cancer. The prevention is more noticeable in younger premenopausal women compared to the postmenopausal women. Also, one study showed that Vitamin D can reduce ER (estrogen receptor) positive breast cancers (most common breast cancer which grow in response to estrogen) in postmenopausal women.

However, vitamin D deficiency is a growing problem in the world. Vitamin D deficiency is even associated with obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Oily fish, mushrooms, eggs, fortified dairy products are known dietary sources of vitamin D. Plant based Vitamin D is called ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and animal based form is called cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). The current recommended daily Vitamin D intake for adults under age 70 years is 600 IU (International Units) and 800 IU after 70 years.

How does vitamin D work against breast cancer?

In preclinical studies, vitamin D has been shown to reduce inflammation, specifically, the common inflammation reactions mediated by molecules called cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nuclear factor -kB (NF-kB). Vitamin D can increase the expression of E-cadherin, which prevents breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Moreover, several studies suggested that vitamin D can also block synthesis and biological actions of estrogen. In addition to those, vitamin D plays a significant role at the cellular level by controlling cell growth, differentiation as well as cell death.

What can go wrong with vitamin D?

The recommended upper limit of vitamin D is 4000 IU/day for adults. According to the Office of Dietary Supplements (National Institute of Health USA), extremely high levels of vitamin D can cause toxicity which leads to anorexia, weight loss, polyuria, and heart arrhythmias. But sun exposure or eating vitamin D containing food would not lead to an increase in vitamin D level to such high levels.

In general, vitamin D deficiency is a growing problem in the world. Aging and several disease conditions including obesity, digestive system problems and cancer can further lower vitamin D levels in the body. Over the last few years, research in the vitamin D area shows a steady increase due to the recognized importance for human health. In case of breast cancer, available scientific evidence suggests that vitamin D status needs careful attention.

This information is primarily based on the following article published in The Oncologist journal. Some general background information was acquired from PubMed and NIH sources.

Shao et al., Vitamin D and Breast Cancer.The Oncologist first published on January 10, 2012;doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2011-0278

Copyright © 2012 Nutrition Remarks. All rights reserved


Can the Mediterranean diet reduce colon cancer risk?

Can the Mediterranean diet reduce colon cancer risk?

Frontier Voice of Nutrition Remarks (December 20, 2011)

Nalin Siriwardhana, PhD, interviewed Prof. Zora Djuric from the Departments of Family Medicine and Environmental Health Sciences at the University of Michigan

Diet and cancer expert, Prof. Zora Djuric, highlighted that the Mediterranean diet contains promising active compounds to reduce colon cancer risk. According to her most recent publication in the Nutrition Review journal, the Mediterranean diet contains not only plenty of beneficial components such as fruits, vegetables, herbs, fish, and olive oil but also low levels of harmful fats and red meat.

Unhealthy inflammation associated with unhealthy dietary patterns can increase colon cancer risk. Further, she added that the colon cancer risk is high for those who live in parts of the industrialized world such as the United States. Although in Greece, where people routinely consume a Mediterranean diet, the colon cancer rate is very low. However, the rate has increased among the people who migrated from Greece to industrialized countries. Using validated scientific information, Prof. Djuric clearly explained that the Mediterranean diet has multiple beneficial effects to lower colon cancer risk and improve colon health.

Nutrition Remarks interviewed Prof. Djuric due to the importance of her information for public health. A simplified version of the conversation is as follows:

Question from Nutrition Remarks: What are the major differences between a Mediterranean diet and a typical American or Western diet?

Answer from Dr. Djuric: The Mediterranean diet has higher amounts of plant-based foods like fruits, vegetables, herbs, cereals, legumes, and olive oil compared to the American or Western diet. Also, a Mediterranean diet has a higher variety of plant-based nutrients than the American or Western diet. The Mediterranean diet also includes plentiful fish while American and Western diets contain more red meat/meat products. Another significant difference is that the Mediterranean diet contains beneficial olive oil, but the American and Western diets contain high levels of other fats such as trans fats from processed foods and saturated fats from meat.

Question: Why is the variety of fruits and vegetable important?

Answer: Different fruits, vegetables, and herbs contain different beneficial compounds such as anti-oxidants, vitamins, minerals, and nutrients. Importantly, different fruits, vegetables, and herbs also contain different types and amounts of beneficial phytochemicals such as resveratrol, catechins, flavonoids, carotenoids, etc. Therefore, the preventive benefits are increased with increased varieties versus using a single or few varieties in the diet.

Question: What is the link between colon cancer and inflammation?

Answer: There are multiple links between inflammation and cancer. Specifically, one of the harmful compounds produced by omega 6 fats is associated with inflammation in the colon. It is called prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and this metabolite of omega-6 fats is well-known to be increased in colon cancer. Omega-3 fats, such as those found in fish, cannot be metabolized to form harmful PGE2. Instead omega-3 makes PGE3 that is less inflammatory.

Question: Howdoes the Mediterranean diet reduce inflammation?

Answer: The Mediterranean diet can reduce inflammation in several ways.

Fish contain higher levels of beneficial omega-3 fats called eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docashexanoic acid (DHA). EPA plays a major role by reducing PGE2 production, thus greatly reducing inflammation.

Several anti-inflammatory phytochemicals such as resveratrol, catechins, flavonoids, carotenoids, etc. have multiple benefits including PGE2-reducing effects.

Components of a Mediterranean diet have activities similar to the popular multifunctional drug aspirin. Like aspirin, compounds in the Mediterranean diet can also reduce PGE2 and the enzymes that produce PGE2, called cyclooxygenase (COX), to reduce inflammation. Dr. Rothwell from the University of Oxford showed that long-term aspirin use can reduce colon cancer risk.

Original work: Zora Djuric , The Mediterranean diet: Effects on proteins that mediate fatty acid metabolism in the colon. Nutrition ReviewsVol. 69, No. 12, 730-744 (2012).

Written by Nalin Siriwardhana, PhD

Zora Djuric, PhD, is a Research Professor in the Departments of Family Medicine and Environmental Health Sciences (Nutrition program) at the University of Michigan. She is also a member of the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center. Dr. Djuric has expertise with research on cancer risk biomarkers related to different dietary patterns, focusing mainly on clinical studies. Her studies have typically included individuals at increased cancer risk. Her current focus is on colon cancer prevention using a Mediterranean exchange list diet.

More about Prof. Zora Djuric and work




Copyright © 2011 Nutrition Remarks. All rights reserved